Three-dimensional TV is expected to be the next revolution in the TV history. They implemented a 3D TV prototype system with real-time acquisition transmission, & 3D display of dynamic scenes. They developed a distributed scalable architecture to manage the high computation & bandwidth demands. 3D display shows high-resolution stereoscopic color images for multiple viewpoints without special glasses. This is first real time end-to-end 3D TV system with enough views & resolution to provide a truly immersive 3D experience.
Why 3D TV
The evolution of visual media such as cinema and television is one of the major hallmarks of our modern civilization. In many ways, these visual media now define our modern life style. Many of us are curious: what is our life style going to be in a few years? What kind of films and television are we going to see? Although cinema and television both evolved over decades, there were stages, which, in fact, were once seen as revolutions:
1) at first, films were silent, then sound was added;
2) cinema and television were initially black-and-white, then color was introduced;
3) computer imaging and digital special effects have been the latest major novelty.
II. BASICS OF 3D TV
Human gains three-dimensional information from variety of cues. Two of the most important ones are binocular parallax & motion parallax.
A. Binocular Parallax
It means for any point you fixate the images on the two eyes must be slightly different. But the two different image so allow us to perceive a stable visual world. Binocular parallax defers to the ability of the eyes to see a solid object and a continuous surface behind that object even though the eyes see two different views.
B. Motion Parallax
It means information at the retina caused by relative movement of objects as the observer moves to the side (or his head moves sideways). Motion parallax varies depending on the distance of the observer from objects. The observer's movement also causes occlusion (covering of one object by another), and as movement changes so too does occlusion. This can give a powerful cue to the distance of objects from the observer.
C. Depth perception
It is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. It is a trait common to many higher animals. Depth perception allows the beholder to accurately gauge the distance to an object. The small distance between our eyes gives us stereoscopic depth perception. The brain combines the two slightly different images into one 3D image. It works most effectively for distances up to 18 feet. For objects at a greater distance, our brain uses relative size and motion As shown in the figure, each eye captures its own view and the two separate images are sent on to the brain for processing. When the two images arrive simultaneously in the back of the brain, they are united into one picture. The mind combines the two images by matching up the similarities and adding in the small differences. The small differences between the two images add up to a big difference in the final picture ! The combined image is more than the sum of its parts. It is a three-dimensional stereo picture.
D. Stereographic Images
It means two pictures taken with a spatial or time separation that are then arranged to be viewed simultaneously . When so viewed they provide the sense of a three-dimensional scene using the innate capability of the human visual system to detect three dimensions.As you can see, a stereoscopic image is composed of a right perspective frame and a left perspective frame - one for each eye.When your right eye views the right frame and the left frame is viewed by your left eye, your brain will perceive a true 3D view.
It is an optical device for creating stereoscopic (or three dimensional) effects from flat (two-dimensional) images; D.Brewster first constructed the stereoscope in 1844. It is provided with lenses, under which two equal images are placed, so that one is viewed with the right eye and the other with the lef t. Observed at the same time, the two images merge into a single virtual image, which, as a consequence of our binocular vision, appears to be three-dimensional.
F. Holographic Images
A luminous, 3D, transparent, colored and nonmaterial image appearing out of a 2D medium, called a hologram. A holographic image cannot be viewed without the proper lighting.
III.ARCHITECTURE OF 3D TV
The whole system consists mainly three blocks:
3. Display Unit
The acquisition stage consists of an array of hardware-synchronized cameras. Small clusters of cameras are connected to the producer PCs. The producers capture live, uncompressed video streams & encode them using standard MPEG coding. The compressed video then broadcast on separate channels over a transmission network, which could be digital cable, satellite TV or the Internet.
Generally they are using 16 Basler A101fc color cameras with 1300X1030, 8 bits per pixel CCD sensors.
1) CCD Image Sensors: Charge coupled devices are electronic devices that are capable of transforming a light pattern (image) into an electric charge pattern (an electronic image).
Figure 6 shows CCD sensors.
2) MPEG-2 Encoding: MPEG-2 is an extension of the MPEG-1 international standard for digital compression of audio and video signals. MPEG-2 is directed at broadcast formats at higher data rates; it provides extra algorithmic 'tools' for efficiently coding interlaced video, supports a wide range of bit rates and provides for multichannel surround sound coding. MPEG- 2 aims to be a generic video coding system supporting a diverse range of applications. They have built a PCI card with custom programmable logic device (CPLD) that generates the synchronization signal for all the cameras. So, what is PCI card?
3) PCI Card:
There's one element the bus. Essentially, a bus is a channel or path between the components in a computer. We will concentrate on the bus known as the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI). We'll talk about what PCI is, how it operates and how it is used, and we'll look into the future of bus technology.
All 16 cameras are individually connected to the card, which is plugged into the one of the producer PCs. Although it is possible to use software synchronization, they consider precise hardware synchronization essential for dynamic scenes. Note that the price of the acquisition cameras can be high, since they will be mostly used in TV studios. They arranged the 16 cameras in regularly spaced linear array.
Transmitting 16 uncompressed video streams with 1300X1030 resolution & 24 bits per pixel at 30 frames per seconds requires 14.4 Gblsec bandwidth, which is well beyond current broadcast capabilities. For compression & transmission o1 dynamic muitiview video data there are two basic design choices. Either the data from multiple cameras is compressed using spatial or spatio-temporal encoding, or each video stream is compressed individually using temporal encoding. The first option offers higher compression, since there is a lot of coherence between the views. However, it requires that a centralized processor compress multiple video streams. This compression-hub architecture is not scalable, since the addition of more views will eventually overwhelm the internal bandwidth of the encoder. So, they decided to use temporal encoding of individual video stream on distributed processors. This strategy has other advantages. Existing broadband protocols & compression standards do not need to be changed for immediate real world 3D TV experiments. This system can plug into today's digital TV broadcast infrastructure & co-exist in perfect harmony with 2D TV. There did not have access to digital broadcast equipment, they implemented the modified architecture as shown in figure 9.
Eight producer PCs are connected by gigabit Ethernet to eight consumers PCs. Video stream at full camera resolution (1300*103D) are encoded with MPEG-2 & immediately decoded on the producer PCs. This essentially corresponds to a broadband network with infinite bandwidth & almost zeros delay. The gigabit Ethernet provides all-to-all connectivity between decoders & consumers, which is important for distributed rendering & display implementation. So, what is gigabit Ethernet? '
1) Gigabit Ethernet: It a transmission technology, enables Super Net to deliver enhanced network performance. Gigabit Ethernet is a high speed form of Ethernet (the most widely installed LAN technology), that can provide data transfer rates of about 1 gigabit per second (Gbps). Gigabit Ethernet provides the capacity for server interconnection, campus backbone architecture and the next generation of super user workstations with a seamless upgrade path from existing Ethernet implementations.
2)Decoder & Consumer Processing: The receiver side is responsible for generating the appropriate images to be displayed. The system needs to be able to provide all possible views to the end users at every instance. The decoder receives a compressed video stream, decode it, and store the current uncompressed source frame in a buffer as shown in figure 10. Each consumer has virtual video buffer (VVD) with data from all current source frames. (I.e., all acquired views at a particular time instance).
Fig.5.6 Block Diagram of Decoder and Consumer processing
The consumer then generates a complete output image by processing image pixels from multiple frames in the VVB. Due to the bandwidth 8 processing limitations it would be impossible for each consumer to receive the complete source of frames from all the decoders. This would also limit the scalability of the system. Here is one-to-one mapping between cameras & projectors.
IV.MULTIVIEW AUTO STEREOSCOPIC DISPLAY
A. Holographic Displays
It is widely acknowledged that Dennis Gabor invented the hologram in 1948. he was working on an electron microscope. He coined the word and received a Nobel Prize for inventing holography in 1971. The holographic image is true three-dimensional: it can be viewed in different angles without glasses.
Figure shows the holographic image.
All current holo-video devices use single-color laser light. To reduce the amount of display data they provide only horizontal parallax. The display hardware is very large in relation to size of the image. So cannot be done in real-time.
B. Holographic Movies
We have developed the world's first holographic equipment with the capability of projecting genuine 3-dimensional holographic films as well as holographic slides and real objects – for the multiple viewers simultaneously. Our Holographic Technology was primarily designed for cinema.
C. Volumetric Displays
It use a medium to fill or scan a three-dimensional space & individually address & illuminate small voxels. However, volumetric systems produce transparent images that do not provide a fully convincing three dimensional experience. Furthermore, they cannot correctly reproduce the light field of a natural scene because of their limited color reproduction & lack of occlusions. The design of large size volumetric displays also poses some difficult obstacles.
Parallax displays emit spatially varying directional light. Much of the early 3D display research focused on improvement to Wheat stone's stereoscope. In 1903, F.Ives used a plate with vertical slits as a barrier over an image with alternating strips of left-eye/righteye images. The resulting device is called a parallax stereogram. To extend the limited viewing angle 8 restricted viewing position of stereogram, Kanolt & H.Ives used narrower slits & smaller pitch between the alternating image strips. These multiview images are called parallax panorama grams. Stereogram & panorama grams provide only horizontal parallax. Lippmann proposed using an array of spherical lenses instead of slits. This is frequently called a 'fly's eye" lens sheet, & resulting image is called integral photograph. An integral is a true planar light field with directionally varying radiance per pixel. Integral sacrifice significant spatial resolution in both dimensions to gain full parallax. Researchers in the 1930s introduced the lenticular sheet, a line of array of narrow cylindrical lenses called Isnticules. Lenticular images found widespread use for advertising, CD covers, & postcards. To improve the native resolution of the display, H.Ives invented the multi-projector lenticular display in 1931. He painted the back of a lenticular sheet with diffuse paint & used it as a projection surface for 39 slide projectors. Finally high output resolution, the large number of views & the large physical dimensions of or display leads to a very immersive 3D display. Other research in parallax displays includes time multiplexed 8 tracking-bass systems. In time multiplexing, multiple views are projected at different time instances using a sliding window or LCD shutter. This inherently reduces the frame rate of the display & may lead to noticeable flickering. Headtracking designs are mostly used to display stereo images, although it could also be used to introduce some vertical parallax in multiview lenticular displays. Today's commercial auto stereoscopic displays use variations of parallax barriers or lenticular sheets placed on the top of LCD or plasma screens. Parallax barriers generally reduce some of the brightness &sharpness of the image. Here, this projector based 3D display currently has a native resolution of 12 million pixels.
Fig.6.2 Images of a scene from the viewer side of the display (top row) and
as seen from some of the cameras (bottom row).
Displays offer very high resolution, flexibility, excellent cost performance, scalability, & large-format images. Graphics rendering for multiprojector systems can be efficiently parallelized on clusters of PCs using, for example, the Chromium API. Projectors also provide the necessary flexibility to adapt to non-planar display geometries. Precise manual alignment of the projector array is tedious 8 becomes downright impossible for more than a handful of projectors or non-planar screens. Some systems use cameras in the loop to automatically compute relative projectors poses for automatic alignment. Here they will use static camera for automatic image alignment & brightness adjustments of the projectors.
V. 3D DISPLAY
This is a brief explanation that we hope sorts out some of the confusion about the many 3D display options that are available today. We'll tell you how they work, and what the relative tradeoffs of each technique are. Those of you that are just interested in comparing different Liquid Crystal Shutter glasses techniques can skip to the section at the end. Of course, we are always happy to answer your questions personally, and point you to other leading experts in the field. Figure shows a diagram of the multi-projector 3D displays with lenticular sheets.
Fig.7.1 Projection-type lenticular 3D displays
They use 16 NEC LT-170 projectors with 1024'768 native output resolution. This is less that the resolution of acquired & transmitted video, which has 1300'1030 pixels. However, HDTV projectors are much more expensive than commodity projectors. Commodity projector is a compact form factor. Out of eight consumer PCs one is dedicated as the controller. The consumers are identical to the producers except for a dual-output graphics card that is connected to two projectors. The graphic card is used only as an output device. For real-projection system as shown in the figure, two lenticular sheets are mounted back-to-back with optical diffuser material in the center. The front projection system uses only one lenticular sheet with a retro reflective front projection screen material from flexible fabric mounted on the back. Photographs show the rear and front projection.
Fig.7.2 Rear Projection and Front Projection
The projection-side lenticular sheet of the rear-projection display acts as a light multiplexer, focusing the projected light as thin vertical stripes onto the diffuser. Close up of the lenticular sheet is shown in the figure 6. Considering each lenticel to be an ideal Pinhole camera, the stripes capture the view-dependent radiance of a threedimensional light field. The viewer side lenticular sheet acts as a light de-multiplexer & projects the view-dependent radiance back to the viewer. The single lenticular sheet of the front-projection screen both multiplexes & demultiplexes the light. The two key parameters of lenticular sheets are the field-of-view (FOV) & the number of lenticules per inch (LPI). Here it is used 72" ' 48" lenticular sheets with 30 degrees FOV & 15 LPI. The optical design of the lenticules is optimized for multiview 3D display. The number of viewing zones of a lenticular display is related to its FOV. For example, if the FOV is 30 degrees, leading to 180/30 = 6 viewing zones.
Most of the key ideas for 3D TV systems presented in this paper have been known for decade, such as lenticular screens, multi projector 3D displays, and camera array for acquisition. This system is the first to provide enough view points and enough pixels per view points to produce an immersive and convincing 3D experience. Another area of future research is to improve the optical characteristic of the 3D display computationally. This concept is computational display. Another area of future research is precise color reproduction of natural scenes on multiview display.
 An Assessment of 3DTV Technologies, Levent Onural-Bilkent Un.,Thomas Sikor- Tech. Univ. Of Berlin, Jorn Ostermann- Univ. Of Hanover, Aljoscha Smolic- Fraunhofer Inst.-HHI, M. Reha Civanlar- Koc Univ., John Watson- Univ. Of Aberdeen, NAB-2006 - Las Vegas - 26 April 2006 c Copyright 2006.
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