Man machine interface has been one of the growing fields of research and Development in recent years. Most of the effort has been dedicated to the design of user Friendly or ergonomic systems by means of innovative interfaces such as voice recognition, virtual reality. A direct brain-computer interface would add a new dimension to man-machine interaction. A brain-computer interface, sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. In one BCIs, computers either accept commands from the brain or send signals to it but not both. Two way BCIs will allow brains and external devices to exchange information in both directions but have yet to be successfully implanted in animals or humans.
Brain-Computer interface is a staple of science fiction writing. In its earliest incarnations no mechanism was thought necessary, as the technology seemed so far fetched that no explanation was likely. As more became known about the brain however, the possibility has become more real and the science fiction more technically sophisticated. Recently, the cyberpunk movement has adopted the idea of 'jacking in', sliding 'biosoft' chips into slots implanted in the skull(Gibson, W.1984).Although such biosofts are still science fiction, there have been several recent steps toward interfacing the brain and computers.
In this definition, the word brain means the brain or nervous system of an organic life form rather than the mind. Computer means any processing or computational device, from simple circuits to silicon chips (including hypothetical future technologies like quantum computing).
Research on BCIs has been going on for more than 30 years but from the mid 1990’s there has been dramatic increase working experimental implants. The common thread throughout the research is the remarkable cortical-plasticity of the brain, which often adapts to BCIs treating prostheses controlled by implants and natural limbs. With
Recent advances in technology and knowledge, pioneering researches could now conceivably attempt to produce BCIs that augment human functions rather than simply restoring them, previously only the realm of science fiction.
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a method of communication based on voluntary neural activity generated by the brain and independent of its normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles. The neural activity used in BCI can be recorded using invasive or noninvasive techniques. We can say as detection techniques and experimental designs improve, the BCI will improve as well and would provide wealth alternatives for individuals to interact with their environment.